External Tank and Related Abstracts

Complete Through 30 Dec 1990

AFT CARGO CARRIER CONTAMINATION SCREENING ANALYSIS, Martin-Marietta Denver S83-47578-002, Dec 1983.
Abstract: The report presents a description of potential contamination hazards associated with the Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) used with the Space Transportation System (STS) External Tank (ET). It lists all contamination concerns currently identified for this configuration. An attempt has been made to prioritize the concerns in terms of potential contamination risks to ACC payloads. Concerns identified as having high potential risks have then been evaluated in greater detail than lower priority concerns. Selection of high priority concerns was done prior to detailed evaluation and largely based on engineering judgment and experience gained with other configurations. It is recommended that contamination issues be addressed in greater detail in the future for verification. Key words: ACC, contamination, ET, outgassing, residuals

AFT CARGO CARRIER (EXTERNAL TANK) SYSTEMS DEFINITION HANDBOOK, Martin-Marietta, Dec 1982.
Abstract: This handbook presents a baseline configuration description of the ACC and its systems for a containerized general purpose payload including the mission requirements, interfaces, mission/system analysis and major operation assessments. The information contained is based on the baseline design information, drawings and analysis completed prior to Dec 1982. Key Words: ACC, ET, payload, shuttle

Anderson, J.W., Tewell, J.R., Taylor, T.C., “Platform Operations Using the External Tank”, AIAA 81-8461, 2nd AIAA Conference on Large Space Platforms, San Diego, Feb 1981.
Abstract: A new STS payload accommodation concept has been defined and studied. This concept, called an Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC), consists of a cylindrical structural enclosure attached to the aft end of the ET. Both the ET and ACC are taken into orbit. The ACC provides over 13,000 additional cubic feet of cargo volume and will accommodate payloads which are incompatible with the fifteen foot diameter orbiter cargo bay. Several potential mission applications and resulting ACC configurations were identified which support space platform activities and operations. Key Words: ACC, commercial, ET, platform

Angelo, J.A., The Dictionary of Space Technology, pp. 68-73, Facts On File, Inc., New York, 1982.
Abstract: Technical description of the ET and its operation. Key Words: description, ET

Carroll, J.A., “Potential On-Orbit Uses of Aluminum From the External Tank”, AIAA GNOS 83-006, New Orleans, La., Sept 1983.
Abstract: This paper describes possible ways to recycle and use the aluminum alloys that make up 85% of the mass of the ET. The processes and uses are intended to be compatible with and useful to a space station. Uses include several propulsion concepts, fabrication of structures by vapor or molten spray deposition and hot-side thermal storage to allow solar thermal power generation even through dark periods. Key Words: aluminum, ET, melting, power generation, structures

Carroll, J.A.., “Tether Applications in Space Transportation”, IAF 84-438, ACTA ASTRONAUTICA, April 1984.
Abstract: The high cost of delivering rocket propellants to orbit for use there makes attractive the use of alternative reaction masses such as other spacecraft, planetary magnetospheres, atmospheres, light and celestial bodies. SOme of these alternatives have already been used in special cases, but tethers may be the key to using all of them on a far more general and ambitious basis. This paper gives a general overview of the many ways that tethers may be used in space transportation. There is an emphasis on near term applications such as payload boosting and space station momentum management. Key Words: ET, electrodynamic tethers, momentum transfer, tethers

Carroll, J.A., TETHER-MEDIATED RENDEZVOUS, REPORT TO MARTIN-MARIETTA, California Space Institute, March 1984.
Abstract: A very elegant way has been found for �he shuttle to rendezvous with a space station. The ET is carried into orbit, GPS is used for precise guidance to the end of a tether deployed below the space station and a modified ET tip is used to snag the tip of the tether. If successful, this concept could eliminate a large circularization burn and greatly reduce end of mission deorbit burns as well. The possibility also exists to transfer tons of residual cryos for later use. Hardware and operational techniques developed for this strategy are available for any number of ET scavenging scenarios as well. Key Words: ET, momentum transfer, residuals, space station, tethers

CIVILIAN SPACE STATIONS AND THE US FUTURE IN SPACE, OTA-STI-241, US Congress Office of Technology Assessment, Washington DC, Nov 1984, pp.77-82.
Abstract: Excellent report. The study was designed to cover not only the essential technical issues surrounding the selection and acquisition of infrastructure in space, but to enable Congress to look beyond these matters to the larger context; the DIRECTION of our efforts. Given the vast capability and promise available to the country and the world because of the sophisticated space technology we now possess, equally sophisticated and thoughtful decisions must be made about where the US space program is going, and for what purposes. Key Words: civil, commercial, ET, space stations

Cutler, A.H., ALUMINUM FUELED SPACE ENGINES TO ENHANCE SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS, TECHNOLOGICAL SPRINGBOARD TO THE 21st CENTURY, NASA/ASEE Summer Study, 1984.
Abstract: Aluminum fueled engines offer tremendous benefits if used as OTV propulsion for the STS. Economic benefits stem from increased payload throughput for a given STS launch rate. System benefits are the use of existing hardware and existing operations. Aluminum source would be ETs processed on orbit. Aluminum may be available on orbit at much lower costs than cryogens, propellant cost savings could offset the added complexity and cost of an aluminum fueled space engine development. Key Words: aluminum, cost, ET, propellant, reprocessing

Cutler, A.H., “H2/O2/Al Engines and Their Application to OTVs”, 35th IAF Congress, IAF 84-314, Lausanne, Switzerland, Oct 1984.
Abstract: Al/H2/O2 engines allow more economical OTV operations than do advanced H2/O2 engines. Making very conservative estimates of engine and vehicle performance, Aluminum fueled engines allow 10 – 40% greater economy for OTV operations and lunar and planetary missions than advanced H2/O2 engines. This translates into launch cost savings of billions of dollars per year, and would reduce US mission needs for lunar or Mars missions by several STS launches. Use of spent stages as reaction mass is a powerful concept which allows great economies in orbit raising to any organization which can use a modestly equipped transportation node in LEO. Key Words: Aluminum, cost, ET, propellant, reprocessing

Davis, R.M., “External Tank Looks for a New Lease On Life”, AEROSPACE AMERICA, AIAA, May 1985.
Abstract: Taken into orbit, rather than dropped back to earth, the ET could expand the uses of the shuttle. This article is a basic overview of the ET and its potential use in orbit. Key Words: ACC, GRIT, ET, structure

ET APPLICATIONS IN SPACE – FINAL REPORT, Martin-Marietta Advanced Programs by T.C. Taylor, Contract AS3-756221, 27 Jun 83.
Abstract: Final report of five produced under the contract. The goal of this study is to create a generic ET derived space platform for science and applications. The work done has led to several scenarios which could evolve into a platform in several different forms. Commercial requirements and services are the initial emphasis. Economics and budgetary concerns are also studied. Key Words: ACC, commercial, ET, platform, science

ET APPLICATIONS IN SPACE – FINAL REPORT, Vol II, Martin-Marietta Advanced Programs by T.C. Taylor, Dec 1982.
Abstract: The goal of the report is to conceptually explore ET and ACC applications through a 3-dimensional user matrix. Near term modifications to the ACC result in skirt scavenging concepts and modular ACC concepts. Far term economic benefits were explored by several concepts suggesting melting the ETs to molten aluminum in orbit. Additional ET modifications were proposed to enhance user activities in space. Key Words: ACC, commercial, ET, melting, modifications, scavenging

EXTERNAL TANK APPLICATIONS, Martin-Marietta, 1982
Abstract: Series of briefing slides detailing possible commercial applications of the ET/ACC combination and the straight ET in a commercial setting. Key Words: ACC, commercial, ET

EXTERNAL TANK GAMMA RAY IMAGING TELESCOPE STUDY, Phase 4, Final Report, NAS8-36394, Martin-Marietta Manned Space Systems, New Orleans, La, May 1990.
Abstract: Phase 4 describes all activities necessary to construct a large aperture gamma ray observatory out of the ET. Problems worked are pressurization, orbital debris, impact mitigation, reboost, and on-orbit construction of GRIT. Also addressed are neutral buoyancy test simulator runs. Key Words: construction, ET, GRIT, telescope

Fester, D.A., Gilmore, W.L., PROPELLANT SUPPLY FOR SPACE OPERATIONS, Martin-Marietta, 1985.
Abstract: Large quantities of propellants are needed to support space station operations with space-based OTVs. he supply of cryogens for these operations is considered and the comparable need for storable propellants is discussed. Two methods for supplying propellants from earth are available – dedicated tanker missions and scavenging unused STS propellant from the ET after launch. The second approach was studied in detail because of its potential cost savings. A variety of scenarios, including the use of the ACC, were discussed. A concept combining scavenging and manifesting propellant provides the best scavenging approach. Transportation of storables and other fluids in small dedicated tanks from 1991 – 2000 is still necessary to supplement scavenging. Scavenging can supply OTV needs. Scavenging can reduce the cost of propellant to 1/3 that of dedicated tankers. Key Words: ACC, cost, ET, OTV, propellants, residuals, scavenging

Gilmore, W., “Supplying Cryogenic Propellants for Space Based OTV”, 21st Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA 85-1225, Monterey, Calif, July 1985.
Abstract: A primary function of space station operations will be to launch payloads to GEO using space based, refuelable, cryogenic OTVs. The ET and its residuals provide a resource for this mission. NASA mission models prior to 1985 indicate more than 250,000 lbs of cryogenic OTV propellant per year will be required. This paper details scavenging options and potential cost savings if an ET strategy is adopted over a manifested orbiter based tanker. Key Words: cost, ET, OTV, propellants, scavenging

Gimarc, J.A., “A Concept for Manned Variable Gravity Facilities”, SPACE MANUFACTURING 6 – NONTERRESTRIAL RESOURCES, BIOSCIENCES AND SPACE ENGINEERING, 8th Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference on Space Manufacturing, AIAA, Oct 1987.
Abstract: This paper will discuss the needs for and the configurations of an early space platform that will provide artificial gravity. The platform will be a tethered dumbbell capable of rotation to provide artificial gravity levels up to 1-G earth normal with reasonable rotation rates. It should be able to provide life support and living quarters for a number of inhabitants, and should allow the study of the long term effects of various G levels on living entities. It also may be able to provide a habitat for crewmembers that might want to “commute” to and from an zero G workplace, thus minimizing the long term effects of weightlessness by another method. This type of facility should be affordable, manned and operational in a minimum number of flights. It should also be capable of expansion to provide living quarters for those involved in large scale space manufacturing and construction projects. Key Words: colony, ET, large habitat, tethers, variable G

Gimarc, J.A., “External Tank Applications in Space Manufacturing”, SPACE MANUFACTURING 5 – ENGINEERING WITH LUNAR AND ASTEROIDAL MATERIALS, 7th Princeton/AIAA Conference on Space Manufacturing, AIAA, Oct 1985.
Abstract: The ET is a potential component of an initial space manufacturing operation. It can be configured for a variety of applications in space to include habitats, storage of volatiles, factory components, and a ready source of raw materials. The paper discusses potential uses in a start-up SPS manufacturing scheme. The proposal is weighted toward early commercial start, inexpensive operations, modular components, and simple expansion to a full scale SPS manufacturing operation. Key Words: commercial, ET, Space Manufacturing Facility (SMF), SPS

Gimarc, J.A., “External Tank Report”, SPACE FRONTIER, April 1987, pp. 4-5,26.
Abstract: Article is essentially reproduced from the SSI ET report and gives an overview of contents of the report. All six applications areas are briefly discussed. Key Words: applications, ET, SSI

Gimarc, J.A., “Saving the External Tank”, SSI UPDATE, The High Frontier Newsletter, Vol XII, Issue 6, SSI, Princeton, NJ, November/December 1986.
Abstract: Overview of possible uses of the ET in space. Includes its basic structure, launch costs, spent stages of launch vehicles, and past interest. Introduction into ET description, tin can uses, fuels resource, structures, tether applications and miscellaneous uses. Problems are also discussed. Key Words: commercial, contamination, ET, propellants, structures, tethers, tin can uses

Gimarc, J.A., SPACE STUDIES INSTITUTE REPORT ON SPACE SHUTTLE EXTERNAL TANK APPLICATIONS, SSI/Martin Marietta Manned Space Systems, Report Submitted to the National Commission on Space, SSI, Princeton, NJ, 1 Dec 1985.
Abstract: Comprehensive catalog of all existing concepts for applications and uses of the ET on orbit. Also included is a list of references used constructing the report. Key Words: applications, ET, miscellaneous, scavenging, structures, tethers, tin can uses

Haislip, J.N., Linscott, R.E., Raynes, W.C., Skinner, M.A., Van Matre, D.L., AN ALUMINUM SALVAGE STATION FOR THE EXTERNAL TANK (ASSET), AFIT Thesis, AFIT/GSE/ENY/90D-02, Dec 1990.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the external tank of the Space Transportation System could be reduced to a form of readily usable construction material. Three methods of on-orbit reduction were developed and it is shown that low earth salvage of the external tank is cost competitive with equivalent products launched from earth. Excellent structural reduction method in space. Key Words: autonomous, ET, materials, robotics, structures, tools

Hartmann, W.K., Miller, R., Lee, P., OUT OF THE CRADLE, EXPLORING THE FRONTIERS BEYOND EARTH, Workman Publishing, NY, Sept 1984, PP. 48-53.
Abstract: Process of expanding smaller space platforms into large manned facilities is discussed in words and pictures. References are made to tethers, ETs and CALSPACE work in those areas. Key Words: CALSPACE, colonies, ET, tethers

Hedgepeth, J.M, Mobley, T.B., Taylor, T.C., “Construction of Large Precision Reflectors Using the Aft Cargo Carrier”, 35th IAF Congress, IAF 84-389, Lausanne, Switzerland, Oct 1984.
Abstract: The ACC will provide a large sized volume for launching into orbit. This paper reports a conceptual study aimed at examining approaches for using this capability in aiding the establishment of large precision reflectors in space. Attention is paid, in particular, to infrared telescopes with decameter apertures. The ACC is described , and various stowage schemes are discussed. A novel technique of compacting the backup structure for launch is explained. Key Words: ACC, ET, science, telescope

Hooper, W.H., MacFarlane, W.M., “Fabrication of Large Components for the Space Shuttle External Tank”, AIAA GNOS 84-012, New Orleans, LA., Oct 1984.
Abstract: Many different metal shaping processes are embodied in constructing the ET. This paper describes a number of forming and fabricating operations used to produce skin panels and the external fuel line. Compound curved panels are made by stretch forming followed by chem-milling, while age-forming techniques are being developed. Cylindrical panels are made by machining from thick plate. Ultra high speed machining is under study. Dome caps are produced via a combination of spinning and chem milling. The 17 inch feedline is made by spin forging – starting with a thick walled extruded tube blank. Key words: ET manufacturing, metal forming

Identification of New Potential Scientific and Technology Areas for DOD Application, SummaryAof Activities, Final Report, California Space Institute, N84-17050, La Jolla, Calif, Aug 1983.
Abstract: Workshop in which the La Jolla Institute assists DARPA by identifying new scientific and technological areas being pursued at universities that have a potential for DoD applications, may have an impact on existing programs, or serve as a basis for future programs. Potential military applications of the ET include concealment, pressure vessel, volume, shielding, materials, parts, on-orbit storage, target proliferation, sensor stage/base, ballistic materials source, and deep space transport element. Key Words: applications, ET, military

INTERTANK DOOR PALLETS USERS GUIDE, External Tanks Corporation, Boulder, Colo, 5 May 1989.
Abstract: Sales literature from ETCO proposing the use of the ET as a long duration sounding rocket for private payloads. This may be the first commercial use of the ET. Key Words: commercial, ET, ETCO, intertank, sounding rocket

Jones, R.M., “Salvaging Spent External Fuel Tanks to Support Infrastructure in the Orbital Environment”, SPACE MANUFACTURING 7, SPACE RESOURCES TO IMPROVE LIFE ON EARTH, Proceedings of the Ninth Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference on Space Manufacturing, AIAA, Princeton, NJ, Sept 1989, pp. 27-36.
Abstract: A pictorial essay on the merits of storing the ETs on orbit. Included are orbital resources, mining the ET for residual oxygen and hydrogen, mass, volume, and aluminum resource. Key Words: ET, resource, scavenging

Jones, R.M., Taylor, T.C., “External Tank-Spacelab Derived Workshops in Space: Commercial Opportunities for International Space Development”, Draft, IAF Conference, Lausanne, Switzerland, May 1984.
Abstract: Consolidating the large pressure vessel technologies of the ET with existing Spacelab capability, ACC and new Inflatable Architecture technology can yield a new class of space station with a latent propensity for evolutionary growth. These wet workshop class platforms offer rapid implementation, large scale and volumes, growth capability for commercial and corporate users. A resource base is proposed, as is an international life sciences laboratory, biomedical facility, and pharmaceutical factory. Key Words: biologic, ET, inflatable, international, life sciences, pharmaceuticals, Spacelab

Kelly, W.D., “Delivery and Disposal of a Space Shuttle External Tank to Low Earth Orbit”, Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, July-September 1984, Vol. 32, No. 3.

Kelly, W.D., “Flight Control Simulation in Low Earth Orbit for a Space Facility Using an STS External Tank, AIAA 84-1129, AIAA Guidance and Control Conference Proceedings, 20-22 August 1984.
Abstract: The flight in low Earth orbit of the STS External Tank is considered as part of a space platform with an attached module with articulating solar panels. Gravity gradient stabilized Earth orientation is examined as with solar panel tracking by cone and clock motions defined in the paper. Upper atmosphere drag and gravitational effects aer considered as well as change in beta angle due to seasonal advance and orbital nodal regression. For varied mass properties due primarily to solar panel size, and for tracking mechanism, some perturbation effects are shown, including induced torques and deflections in passively stabilized flight. Some required control torques are shown with sample feedback schemes to obtain steady state errors [NOTE: in later papers by author some results and methods refined or re-examined].

Kelly, W.D., “Stabilization of the External Tank for Use as a Large Space Platform,” High Frontier Conference, Space Studies Institute, Princeton, N. J., 1997.
Abstract: Use of magnetic passive dampers is recommended to stabilize the Space Shuttle External Tank in free flight for on-orbit applications. Longitudinal alignment along the radius vector allows for gravity gradient passive stabilization, but, without a damping mechan-ism, there is no inherent means of eliminating disturbance accelerations and buildup of pendular motions lead to spin or tumbling. Review of previous magnetic, passive dampers is provided drawing from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight and Space Station program studies for early assembly flights. Basic physical models of the damper-spacecraft combination are discussed. and preliminary damper design analysis is demonstrated.

King, C.B., Butterfield , A.J., Hypes, W.D., “A Concept for Using the External Tanks From a National Space Transportation System (NSTS) for a Lunar Habitat”, SPACE MANUFACTURING 7, SPACE RESOURCES TO IMPROVE LIFE ON EARTH, Proceedings of the Ninth Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference on Space Manufacturing, AIAA, Princeton, NJ, Sept 1989, pp. 47-56.
Abstract: A concept for using the ET for a lunar habitat is described. The tank is inserted in low earth orbit where it is outfitted as a 12 person lunar habitat. The tank modifications utilize existing structures and openings for man access without compromising the structural integrity of the tank. The modifications include installation of living quarters, instrumentation, an air lock, thermal control, environmental control and life support, and propulsion systems. The habitat is designed for unmanned transport to low lunar orbit and autonomously soft landed on the lunar surface. Supply to the habitat is provided by a space transfer vehicle and manned cargo lander. The lunar habitat concept is feasible by the year 2000 with the concurrent development of a space transfer vehicle and manned cargo lander for crew changeover and resupply. Key Words: ET, habitat, lunar, oxygen tank

King, C.B., Butterfield , A.J., Hypes, W.D., Nealy, J.E., Simonsen, L.C., SINGLE LAUNCH LUNAR HABITAT DERIVED FROM NSTS EXTERNAL TANK, NASA Technical Memorandum 4212, NASA Office of Management, Scientific and Technical Information Division, Dec 1990.
Abstract: Expanded version of the 1989 Princeton paper. A concept for using the ET for a lunar habitat is described. The tank is inserted in low earth orbit where it is outfitted as a 12 person lunar habitat. The tank modifications utilize existing structures and openings for man access without compromising the structural integrity of the tank. The modifications include installation of living quarters, instrumentation, an air lock, thermal control, environmental control and life support, and propulsion systems. The habitat is designed for unmanned transport to low lunar orbit and autonomously soft landed on the lunar surface. Supply to the habitat is provided by a space transfer vehicle and manned cargo lander. The lunar habitat concept is feasible by the year 2000 with the concurrent development of a space transfer vehicle and manned cargo lander for crew changeover and resupply. Key Words: ET, habitat, lunar, oxygen tank

Koch, D.G., Goret, P., Weekes, T., Wilson, R.B., HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY MEASUREMENTS IN THE SPACE STATION ERA, Smithsonian InstitUTion Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass, Oct 1987.
Abstract: This report is intended to present the case for following up on the observations made by GRO at the higher energies; to present the astrophysical objectives and problems to be addressed; to review the study and development effort that has gone into the GRITS; to describe in detail the detection technique and capabilities of the instrument; to address the feasibility of the GRITS concept; and to identify those areas that need further development. Key Words: ET, GRIT, science, telescope

Koch, D., “Results of a Study to Build a Gamma-Ray Telescope in an External Tank, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory”, Cambridge Mass, 1986 (?).
Abstract: In response to the ever-present need for a very large gamma-ray detector for energies greater than 100 MeV, a concept to build a telescope of 250k cm2 sensitive area using a shuttle ET is presented. In the space station era, for the first time, large detectors can be constructed on-orbit which would otherwise be limited in size by the launch vehicle. The ET will serve as the spacecraft and the Cherenkov pressure vessel. The significant feature is that the sensitive area will be forty times that of the high energy detector on GRO and will be able to locate even the faintest sources from the GRO survey to a few arc minutes. The detection technique is based upon that originally proposed by Griesen. Key Words: ET, gamma-rays, GRIT, telescope

Koch, D., “Using the ET for Gamma-Ray Astronomy”, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass, 1984.
Abstract: A gamma-ray telescope design is presented which makes use of the normally spent ET of the space shuttle to serve as the spacecraft and Cherenkov pressure vessel. The ET would be configured into the telescope once on orbit, using the space station as the base of operations for carrying out the assembly activities. The telescope will provide a continuation in NASA’s program of high energy astrophysics, by providing for the follow-on observations to the survey work of the EGRET instrument on GRO. The most important features of the gamma-ray imaging telescope system (GRITS) are that its collecting area of 250k cm2 per ET is 40 times that of the EGRET instrument and its ability to locate point sources to within several arc minutes. Key Words: ET, gamma rays, GRIT, telescope

Lunhan, D., “Project Starseed: An Integrated Programme for Nuclear Waste Disposal and Space Solar Energy”, JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH INTERPLANETARY SOCIETY, Vol 36, pp. 426-432, 1983.
Abstract: An earlier paper suggested a strategy of nuclear waste disposal out of the solar system using heavy lift boosters to deliver nuclear waste to a mass driver in LEO. The cost would be 25 times or more that of burial and could be justified only if alternative energy sources such as powersats allowed reactors be phased out. Starseed would build mobile space factories out of the booster’s fuel tanks and then would be moved to the L2 point to build powersats out of lunar materials. In theory, the first decade could produce enough powersats to meet earth’s future energy needs. While revenue from powersats and space manufacturing spinoffs would cover the costs of the waste disposal programme, the long term benefits are so great that the waste disposal should be seen as the route to building powersats, rather than vice versa. Key Words: disposal, nuclear waste, powersats, spent upper stages

Mitchell, P.M., Taylor, T.C., “Low Cost Space Science and Astronomy Platform in Orbit”, AIAA 22nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., Jan 1984.
Abstract: Ongoing studies indicate that low cost, dedicated, evolving orbital platforms are possible for space science and astronomy by using the ET. This paper explores conceptually the platforms possible through several ET derived platform scenarios. Two astronomy and two space science possibilities are presented. Key Words: ACC, astronomy, cost, ET, science

Monitor, D.S., “Studies of an External Tank Tethered to an Orbiter in Orbit”, AIAA GNOS 83-024, New Orleans, La., Sept 1983.
Abstract: Studies by Martin-Marietta show that a direct insertion trajectory by the shuttle will allow fuel savings, payload gain, and the insertion of the ET plus its residuals into earth orbit. Once in orbit, the ET can be released and tethered to the orbiter. A system of two masses in a gravity field may allow beneficial momentum transfer by librating, rotating and jettisoning the ET or a payload at an appropriate point in orbit. Key words: ET, tethers

Morganthaler, G.W., “Programmatic, Scientific, and Commercial Uses of Orbiting Space Shuttle External Tanks”, PISSTA Meeting, Beijing, China, 7-10 Jun, 1990.
Abstract: The ET is a key part of the Shuttle Space Transportation System, providing the LH2 and LO2 propellant tanks and serving as the vehicle strongback. It is now jettisoned as the orbiter reaches 98% of orbital velocity and is tumbled for atmospheric reentry, during which it burns up. This 69,000 lb structure may instead be injected into earth orbit where it can play several beneficial roles in accelerating the programmatic, scientific, and commercial development for space. This paper outlines how this might be accomplished and suggests international participation in the use of such orbiting ETs. Key Words: commercial, historical, international, scientific

NASA AUTHORIZATION ACT, 1987, Report 99-829, 99th Congress, 2nd Session, Mr. Fuqua from the House Committee on Science and Technology, 16 Sept 1986.
Abstract: Legislation which requests NASA to study the technical, operational, cost and safety requirements for ET orbit insertion, basic station keeping, and life support until universities working cooperatively with the private sector can access them for modification and usage. NASA’s report is due by 15 Jan 87. Key Words: ET, ETCO, legislation, private

O’Neill, G.K., THE HIGH FRONTIER, Bantam Books, Jan 1978, SSI Press, Princeton NJ, 1989, pp. 156-161.
Abstract: The initial description of how we might permanently enter space. ET applications are initially as mass driver reaction engine propellant. They have since evolved as the basis for early entry into the commercial low earth orbit market. Key Words: colonies, ET, lunar, mass driver, SPS

PIONEERING THE SPACE FRONTIER, The Report of the National Commission on Space, Bantam Books, New York, May 1986, pp 84.
Abstract: The NCOS has been charged by the Congress and the President to look into the future to propose civilian space goals for 21st century America. Looking into the future, we are confident that the next century will see pioneering men and women from many nations living and working throughout the inner solar system. Space travel will be safe and inexpensive for our grandchildren as jet travel is for us. Our vision and our recommendations are outlined in this report. Through vigorous leadership on the space frontier, America can make this happen. Report goes on to list a variety of activities that can be supported to make the permanent entry into space take place. Key Words: colonies, commercial, ET, private

Price, R.L., “Preflight Modifications to Enhance On-Orbit Utilization of Space Shuttle External Tanks”, PISSTA Meeting, Beijing, China, 7-10 Jun, 1990.
Abstract: The Exploration and development of the solar system may be furthered after the space station era by use of space shuttle external tanks. Over the next two decades, 300 tanks may be flown to earth orbit. Modification of tanks before flight would enhance utility on orbit without degrading primary use as a strongback and fuel tank. The tanks are described, proposed modifications discussed, on-orbit setup reviewed and assembly configurations are described. Paper proposes large ET-based constructs and an array of preflight modifications. Key words: ET, large structures, preflight modifications

THE PROCESS OF SPACE STATION DEVELOPMENT USING EXTERNAL TANKS, Report by the External Tank Working Group of the California Space Institute, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., March 1983.
Abstract: Results of workshops and study group efforts at CALSPACE. Major findings include: Problems which must be overcome to take ETs into stable long-term orbits for use now or later can be analyzed with available knowledge; ETs are defined structures amenable to analysis for new innovative uses. ETs offer opportunities for substantial new innovative approaches to living in and utilizing mass in the space environment beyond those previously envisioned for the STS. Key Words: applications, commercial, ET, space stations, tethers, wet workshops

Queijo, M.J., Butterfield, W.F., Cuddihy, W.F., King, C.B., Stone, W.R., Wrobel, J.R., Garn, P.A., SOME OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF A ROTATING ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY SPACE STATION FOR THE YEAR 2025, The Bionetics Corporation, NASA Contractor Report 181617, Contract NAS1-18267, NASA Langley, Hampton, Va, June 1988, pp. 10-8-12.
Abstract: ETs are proposed as choices for cryogenic propellant storage and station structural components. Key Words: cryogenics, ET, structures

Queijo, M.J., Butterfield, W.F., Cuddihy, W.F., King, C.B., Stone, W.R., Wrobel, J.R., Garn, P.A., SUBSYSTEM DESIGN ANALYSES OF A ROTATING ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY SPACE STATION FOR THE YEAR 2025, The Bionetics Corporation, NASA Contractor Report 181668, Contract NAS1-18267, NASA Langley, Hampton, Va, Dec 1988, pp. 7-22-27.
Abstract: Subsystem design of an advanced technology space station configured to implement subsystem technologies projected for availability in the time period 2000-2025. External tanks were discussed as an option for construction of the rotating pressurized torus ring. Key Words: ET, habitat, rotation

REPORT ON THE UTILIZATION OF THE EXTERNAL TANKS OF THE SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM, NAS8-35037, California Space Institute, University of California at Say Diego, Workshop held Aug 1982, April 1983.
Abstract: Report of the first CALSPACE workshop concentrating on a wide ranging series of ET applications on orbit. Out of these discussions, ET applications in the areas of tin can uses, structural materials, tethers, residuals/scavenging, life sciences and science uses, and military were proposed. The first broad view of possible ET applications. Key Words: biological applications, ET, inflatables, military, structural applications, telescopes, tethers

Rogers, T.F., “Homesteading the New Frontier”, SPACEWORLD June 1985, pp. 4-7.
Abstract: Article discussing the initial on-orbit uses of ETs as orbiting habitats/workplaces by private concerns. Lays the groundwork for future efforts by the Sophron Foundation, Rogers and ETCO. Key Words: commercial, ET, ETCO, private

Rogers, T.F., “The Space Phoenix Program – A Progress Report”, SPACE MANUFACTURING 6 – NONTERRESTRIAL RESOURCES, BIOSCIENCES, AND SPACE ENGINEERING, 8th Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference on space Manufacturing, AIAA, Oct 1987.
Abstract: The Space Phoenix Program is a private commercial industrial program which addresses the long term goal of seeing the Earth’s space opened up to the general public. It intends to do so by beneficiating the in orbit ETs of the shuttle fleet so as to turn them into “Spartan” safe, sanitary and durable habitable structures whose volume will be made available for lease. It expects to do so at such a low unit lease price as to encourage their use by large numbers of people for a large number of diverse in-space activities. It is doing so by drawing upon the interests and capabilities of over fifty universities in active cooperation with the federal government. The Program’s initial objective it to provide the world’s first private, general purpose, scientific research facility in space: a “Labitat”, in which scientists will work and reside. The organizations, activities and progress of the Program are described. Key Words: commercial, ET, ETCO, Labitat, private, Space Phoenix

Rogers, T.F., “Space Settlements – Perhaps Sooner Than We Think”, Text of a speech given to the NSS International Space Development Conference, Denver, Colo, 29 May 88, 5 Jul 88.
Abstract: The thesis of this paper is that space settlements, ie, essentially self sufficient communities located in space well away from the earth, may come into being sooner than many now imagine – but only if certain fundamental aspects of both the civil space area and new community development are appreciated, and only if someone outside of the government moves to do so. Key Words: colonies, ET, ETCO, government, settlements

Sloan, J.H., “Stepping Stones Into Space”, SPACE MANUFACTURING 5 – ENGINEERING WITH LUNAR AND ASTEROIDAL MATERIALS, 7th Princeton/AIAA Conference on Space Manufacturing, AIAA, Oct 1985.
Abstract: Introduction into the possibilities associated with using the ET in space. Launch costs, residual propellants, structures, and raw / not so raw materials resources are briefly discussed. Key Words: ET, residuals, structures

Snead, M., HOME BASE, Report prepared as an entry into the 1989 NSS Space Habitat Design Competition, Beavercreek, Ohio, 15 Apr 89.
Abstract: HOME BASE is a large space habitat located in low earth orbit which will provide research, training and logistics support for future lunar colonies, Mars exploration expeditions, and space based manufacturing facilities. The design employs a simple geometric arrangement of eight pairs of spokes radiating from a central hub. The spokes form the primary habitable volume. Artificial gravity is provided by rotation around the hub’s longitudinal axis. Key Words: colony, ET, habitat, rotation

Snead, J.M., SPACE BASE 1, ET Based Space Station Design, Beavercreek, Ohio, 9 April 1990.
Abstract: Large space habitat located in low earth orbit constructed out of nested ETs. Habitation is primarily along the spokes. Modular design is employed. Key Words: colony, ET, habitat, rotation

Space Phoenix Project Information Document, Space Phoenix Program Workshop, UCAR Foundation, Boulder, Colo, 3-4 Aug 1987.
Abstract: The Space Phoenix Project represents an effort to recycle and add value to the expended ETs of the STS and then see them used for a variety of scientific and commercial purposes. Many authorities have concluded that such an undertaking is technically feasible and that extremely valuable space assets could be created from those scrapped containers. The basic policy assumption of the project us that the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) could obtain a proprietary right to use ETs in orbit, in the form of a fiscally neutral “space grant’ from the federal government. Such assets might then be suitable for private financing, retrofitting, and management for ongoing scientific and commercial puroses, and then operated analogously to a ‘research park, thus constituting a long-term endowment to benefit the atmospheric and planetary science research community. Key Words: commercial, ET, ETCO, private, research, scientific, Space Phoenix, university

SPACE RESOURCES AND SPACE SETTLEMENTS, NASA SP-428, Technical Papers derived from the 1977 Summer Study at NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch, Washington DC, 1979, pp. 62-83.
Abstract: The summer study was the largest and most comprehensive investigation of space manufacturing and habitation to date. Study topics included regenerative life support systems, parametric studies of large efficient habitats in space, detection and analysis of special classes of asteroids suitable as materials resources for space manufacturing and retrieval missions, mass drivers for interorbital reaction engines and lunar materials launchers, and chemical processing of nonterrestrial materials in space. Key Words: asteroids, colonies, ET, mass driver, nonterrestrial materials

SPACE SHUTTLE EXTERNAL TANK (Lightweight Model) SYSTEMS DEFINITION HANDBOOK, Vol I, Configuration and Operations, Martin-Marietta, NAS8-30300, NASA, April 1983.
Abstract: Complete systems description of the ET and all associated subsystems. Key Words: description, ET

SPACE SHUTTLE EXTERNAL TANK (Lightweight Model) SYSTEMS DEFINITION HANDBOOK, Vol II, Layout Drawings, Martin-Marietta, NAS8-30300, NASA, April 1983.
Abstract: Layout drawings for construction of the ET, complete with all subsystems. Key Words: drawings, ET

Stone, W.C., Witzgall, C., “Evaluation of Aerodynamic Drag and Torque for External Tanks in Low Earth Orbit”, SPACE MANUFACTURING 7, SPACE RESOURCES TO IMPROVE LIFE ON EARTH, Proceedings of the Ninth Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference on Space Manufacturing, AIAA, Princeton, NJ, Sept 1989, pp. 37-46.
Abstract: A numerical procedure is described in which the aerodynamic drag and torque in low earth orbit are calculated for a prototype ET and its components, the LO2 and LH2 tanks. The tanks are assumed to be either evacuated or pressurized with a uniform internal gas distribution: dynamic shifting of the tank center mass due to residual propellant sloshing is not considered. Key Words: drag, dynamics, ET

STS PROPELLANT SCAVENGING SYSTEMS STUDY – FINAL REPORT, Vols I & II, Executive Summary, Study Results, Cost and WBS/Dictionary, Supporting Research and Technology Report, Martin-Marietta Michoud Aerospace, Feb 1986, June 1987.
Abstract: Study explores ability to scavenge residual propellants from the ET a ter delivery into space. Free flying scavengers, ET carried and ACC carried scavengers are explored. Key Words: cryogenics, ET, residuals, scavenging

Taylor, T.C., “The Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) With a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Payload”, AIAA GNOS 84-032, New Orleans, La., Oct 1984.
Abstract: A large deployable reflector (LDR) is a 20 meter diameter infrared telescope. Launch and deployment of the using the ET/ACC and on orbit assembly and checkout is explored. The concept uses the ET as a structural foundation for the LDR and the ACC as a large diameter payload carrier. Savings in EVA time during assembly is significant. Key Words: ACC, ET, strongback, telescope

Taylor, T.C., “A Commercial Construction Base Using the External Tank”, 2nd AIAA Conference on Large Space Platforms, AIAA 81-0460, San Diego, Calif., Feb 1981.
Abstract: The construction of large space structures in low earth orbit will someday be a mature commercial industry. As this industry emerges, it will do through many phases as the beam machines and other hardware are developed and specific platform structure designs emerge. This development time can be shortened by the early deployment of a construction base which, first, supports this development period, and second, expands incrementally into a�_ommercial facility as the low earth orbit construction market develops. Conceptually, the ET derived construction base offers a variety of advantages through the use of the ACC attached to the rear of the ET and taken to orbit. Key Words: ACC, commercial, construction, ET, large structures, private

Taylor, T.C., “Commercial Operations for the External Tank in Orbit”, 18th Goddard Memorial Symposium, AAS 80-89, March 1980.
Abstract: The ET and the ACC/ET combination can be developed into a facility to satisfy the needs of a variety of users in LEO. Commercial aspects of space can be marketed by offering a low cost facility, high profit return within a reasonable time, protection of the investment, control in an ever expanding market and minimum government control. Services include LDEF and Spacelab support. Revenue produced appears to be sufficient to pay for the facility in a reasonable period and can provide a profitable opportunity. Key Words: ACC, commercial, cost, ET, platform, profit

Taylor, T.C., “Construction of the SPS Primary Structure by Another Method”, presentation at the DOE SPS Conference, Lincoln, Neb., Apr 1980.
Abstract: The SPS primary structure contains about 10,000 tons of long, fragile structural members. This framework can be built using aluminum foam salvaged from expended ETs. The tanks are melted using a direct solar smelting device, foamed and formed into shapes using zero G processing. Key Words: aluminum, ET, foam, melting, SPS

Taylor, T.C., Mobley, T.B., “The ET in Orbit as a Space System Material Resource”, 33rd IAF Congress, IAF 82-392, Paris, Sept 1982.
Abstract: Most structures in orbit to date have been manufactured on the surface and carried into orbit for deployment and use. The ET can be taken into orbit with a 2,000 lb payload bonus. It can become an orbiting material resource for the manufacture of space systems in orbit. This paper suggests the recovery of ET aluminum and the manufacture into useful systems of this aluminum resource in orbit. Savings in transportation alone through the year 2000 approach $9.3 billion. The structural uses include foamed aluminum, thin shell spherical applications and structures only possible in the microgravity environment of space. The Et scenario for the development of space offers economic advantages both in the development of the ET as an orbital material resource and space station applications. Key Words: commercial, ET, melting, structures

Taylor, T.C., “The ET Scenario”, in Selected ET Papers, Taylor and Associates, Wrightwood, Calif, Sept 1985.
Abstract: The ET will be replicated over 300 times over the next 18 years and taken to the edge of space. Its mission profile allows it to be economically recovered and utilized in orbit. Several ET related resources have been uncovered and may provide economic advantages to development in orbit. The ET may some day be considered an American natural resource in orbit. Description of the ET as an orbital natural resource, propellants resource, interior volume, modifications, habitat and commercial platform. Key Words: applications, commercial, ET, modifications, platform, private

Taylor, T.C., “The External Tank Scenario: Utilization of the Shuttle External Tank for an Earth to Mars Transit System”, THE CASE FOR MARS, AAS Vol 57, Science and Technology Series, AAS 81-236, 1984.
Abstract: This paper discusses a scenario for the development of space from today to the development of the Martian System using the ET of the space shuttle as a basic building block. It relates the resource development of Mars to the existing oilfield development at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska and isolates several construction ideas which space development can use. The paper discusses conceptually a large earth to Mars transport vehicle assembled in earth orbit from ET components and other shuttle transported sub assemblies. The paper concludes by suggesting a new way of communicating more effectively with the general public on a level they will readily accept. Key Words: ACC, ET, habitat, large structures

Taylor, T.C., “Future Potential Uses of Spacelab for Manned Orbital Facilities”, 32nd IAF Congress, IAA 81-227, Rome, Sept 1981.
Abstract: This paper discusses the conceptual uses of the Spacelab in future facilities in orbit. As the commercial orbital market evolves, numerous opportunities exist for Spacelab derived hardware. These orbital markets will seek economical solutions to their needs. The Spacelab technology offers hardware economically because most of the development, testing, integration and manufacturing investment has already been made. Some of the conceptual possibilities include a self contained Spacelab unit docked at an existing facility, a tunnel connector unit, a logistics module, a cargo container, and a crew transport vehicle. Other uses are also possible. The use of Spacelab derived hardware allows the space development community to capitalize on the investment already made. Key Words: commercial, ET, Spacelab

Taylor, T.C., “A Modest Habitation Facility in Low Earth Orbit”, SPACE MANUFACTURING 4, Proceedings of the Fifth Princeton/AIAA Conference on Space Manufacturing, AIAA, Princeton NJ, 15 Aug 1981, pp. 443-454.
Abstract: This paper highlights a low profile scenario for a manned facility in orbit using several innovative concepts with the ET. Contractors learned some lessons at Prudhoe Bay on the Alaskan North Slope that can be applied to orbital development. Various revenue functions can be supported by the ET derived facility. The interior human factors design is highlighted. Key Words: ACC, commercial, construction, ET, habitat

Taylor, T.C., “A Modest Habitation Facility in Low Earth Orbit”, 32nd IAF Congress, IAF 81-40, Rome, Sept 1981.
Abstract: This paper describes an ET derived orbital facility. This facility is commercial in nature and open to participation by international organizations. The ET obtains 99% of full orbital velocity prior to being jettisoned into the ocean. The energy is invested in the ET whether the tank is used in orbit or not. This concept uses this invested energy along with two other ideas to produce an economical approach to a facility in low earth orbit. The interior habitation volume in the ET aft unit is described in detail. Eighteen orbital revenue operations are suggested to capitalize on advantages offered by the ET concept. Key Words: ACC, commercial, ET

Taylor, T.C., Orbital Facility Operations Through an Assured Market Scenario, 33rd IAF Congress, IAF 82-33, Paris, Sept 1982.
Abstract: Orbital Facility operations will eventually support themselves through the generation of revenue and benefits. This paper suggests a financial mechanism to be used internationally to assist the establishment of an orbital facility. Pre-purchased services act as a driver for the orbital hardware configuration design. The orbital facility is designed, manufactured, and orbited by the participating organizations. Evolution is driven by future customers. This scenario can promote international cooperation on the peaceful uses of space. Key Words: commercial, international, platform

Taylor, T.C., Good, W.A., “The Outpost Concept, A Commercial Space Platform Opportunity”, SPACE MANUFACTURING 7, SPACE RESOURCES TO IMPROVE LIFE ON EARTH, Proceedings of the Ninth Princeton/AIAA/SSI Conference on Space Manufacturing, AIAA, Princeton, NJ, Sept 1989, pp. 27-36.
Abstract: GLOBAL OUTPOST, Inc., in cooperation with NASA, proposes to place an ET in orbit for commercial purposes. The OUTPOST ET derived platform discussed in this paper is designed to service a commercial market and will also be available for governmental use. The ET can be placed in orbit with little additional energy. The platform proposed is a minimum cost, man visited facility aimed at attracting commercial ventures seeking a low cost way to use the attributes of space. Key Words: commercial, ET, private, platform

Taylor, T.C., Crain, W.K., Fleming, J., Ganoe, W.H., “Performance Enhancement of the Space Transportation System”, IAF-84-08, 35th Congress of the IAF, Lausanne, Switzerland, Oct 1984.
Abstract: An aerospike may be added to the ET to enhance the overall performance of the shuttle during launch and early flight. The aerospike also provides an attach point for future ET and tethct activities. Key Words: aerospike, ET, residuals, scavenging, tethers

Taylor, T.C., White Paper, The Space Based Support Platform (SBSP) Derived From External Tank Technology Using OUTPOST, Global Outpost, Inc., Alexandria, Va., Dec 1987.
Abstract: The Outpost Platform Technology could evolve into a military support platform. A white paper was written in Sept 1987 to explore the possible evolution and potential advantages of such a platform within the military. An SDIO Logistics and Maintenance type facility was chosen, because it was felt a possibility for such a support facility exists in the future. Military facilities in orbit have seldom included manned activities and the proposed ET derived platform for SDIO logistics and support functions is based on robotic operation with man tended backup and support for original assembly, periodic logistics recharge with consumables, ORUs and expansion, etc. Key Words: commercial, ET, military, Outpost, platform

Timmons, K.P., Norton, A., Williams, F.L., “External Tank Applications in Space”, Unispace Conference, Vienna, Austria, Aug 1982.
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to provide a scenario for the evolution of the ET beyond its present function as a major element of the shuttle. It illustrates some new applications of the ET in orbit and develops a scenario for those uses. Key Words: ACC, applications, ET, platform

Torres, W., Karr., D.G., “Stability Analysis – Space Shuttle Liquid Hydrogen Tank”, AIAA GNOS 84-002, New Orleans, La., Oct 1984.
Abstract: For certain periods of shuttle flight, local regions of the ET liquid hydrogen tank shell develop compressive internal loads. The shell regions just forward of the longerons, where orbiter thrust loads are introduced into the pressure stabilized tank, are of special concern. Analysis in these local regions was performed using several methods; each involving shell stability computer programs. Both bifurcation buckling analysis and non-linear collapse analysis of the stiffened shell are included. The non-linear analysis included geometric and material non-linearities and incorporated the effects of measured initial imperfections. Convergence studies on grid size and boundary proximity are included. Key Words: ET, hydrogen tank, structure

Ware, R.H., Rogers, T.F., Roberts, W.O., “Space Phoenix”, in SPACE POLICY, May 1988, pp. 143-149.
Abstract: The US federal government is collaborating with a non-profit university consortium and its commercial project managers to develop the space shuttle fleet’s expended external tanks for scientific and commercial uses in space. Nearly a half dozen years in evolution, the Space Phoenix Program is a private-sector civil space programme with the long-term goal of opening the earth’s space to as many people, organizations and activities as possible, as soon as possible, and at the lowest cost to them as possible. In time it is expected to be a major focus for private sector activities in space. This report describes how it will work. Key Words: commercial, ET, ETCO, Labitat, private, Space Phoenix

Wefel, J.P., Jones, W.V., “Large Area Orbital Detector Array for High Energy Physics & Astrophysics”, AIAA GNOS-83-019, New Orleans, La., Sept 1983.
Abstract: A manned space platform or space station opens the possibility for detailed studies in high energy physics and astrophysics at energies orders of magnitude greater than are available in terrestrial laboratories. This can be accomplished with a large orbiting detector array > 100 m2 in area. The STS would ferry modules fabricated on the ground into a LEO based staging area from which they would be assembled into a large array, which would then be serviced over its lifetime by astronauts. Key Words: high energy, telescope

Witek, N.J., Taylor, T.C., “The External Tank as a Large Space Structure Construction Base”, 31st IAF Conference, IAF 80-A-41, Tokyo, Sept 1980.
Abstract: The construction of large space structures in orbit will evolve into a major industry in space. Recognizing this potential and establishing an early orbital construction base can accelerate this development and be cost effective. The ET can fill this need. The base reduces the relaunching of equipment and frees the shuttle from long orbital staytimes in large space structures (LSS) testing phases. The construction base can utilize the ACC and the ET in orbit to provide power, a universal LSS test facility with equipment, mechanical construction arm, construction jigs, and repair facilities. A variety of present beam machines can fit into the construction base with room for expansion. Commercial operations can evolve into reality when it is economically justified. The modified ET can evolve incrementally in orbit to fill the needs of the large space structures industry. Key Words: ACC, commercial, construction, ET, large structures

Witek, N.J., Taylor, T.C., “Global Benefits of the Space Enterprise Facility Using the External Tank”, 31st IAF Conference, 80-IAA 46, Tokyo, Sept 1980.
Abstract: The Space Enterprise Facility (SEF) is an ET derived commercial structure in low earth orbit. The ET can be inserted into orbit for little additional cost and is expected to improve the performance of the orbiter. The SEF uses two modified ETs plus a free flying pallet platform to produce revenue by satisfying the needs of the international space industrialization community. Various revenue producing services and products are discussed and the projected revenue available from each operation is estimated for the first ten years. Three cash flow diagrams are discussed and the joint partnership is concluded to be the most probable. An international SEF is possible when other countries join in the development of the orbital complex. Key Words: commercial, construction, cost, ET, international, modifications, private

WORKSHOP ON POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS OF THE STS EXTERNAL TANK TO LIFE SUPPORT, AND TO CHEMICAL AND LIFE SCIENCES, California Space Institute, CSI 83-2, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., February 1983.
Abstract: One day workshop results that concentrated on life support, chemical and life sciences. Particular emphasis was given to the possibility of ET supplied large quantities of water and atmospheric gasses. Inflatable structures and tethered life support applications were also discussed. Key Words: biologicals, ET, inflatables, lifeboats, life support, residuals, tethers

WORKSHOP ON SCIENTIFIC USE OF ORBITING SHUTTLE EXTERNAL TANKS, 1987 Summer Symposium, UCAR Foundation, Boulder Colo, 3-4 Aug 1987.
Abstract: Workshop designed to ask university and scientific investigators what types of science they could conduct an orbiting research lab. Intended to define areas of investigation for the ETCO Labitat. Subjects include Space Phoenix, GRIT, astronomy, astrophysics, earth observation, remote sensing, materials sciences, and life sciences. Key Words: ET, ETCO, science, Space Phoenix, university.

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