February 1992

Global Outposts is the another company with an existing MOU with NASA to provide a man tended / manned platform in orbit. The following Global Outposts documents (PDFs can be downloaded and viewed with Adobe 3.0 or higher) are available on this site:


GLOBAL OUTPOST, Inc. proposes a business venture in orbit and has a management team with 250 years of combined management experience to oversee and direct all the activities associated with providing profitable services to the customer community. GLOBAL OUTPOST. Inc. is comprised of a dedicated team of professionals from a number of diverse fields directly related to the goals of the company.

The management group consists of persons with decades of experience in the fields of manned and unmanned space systems, including launch vehicle development, the Space Shuttle, the utilization of the ET in orbit, the Space Station, the establishment and management of national (and international) space programs, and commercial space venture development. It includes former NASA managers, senior executives from major aerospace companies, executives with extensive military experience, commercial space entrepreneurs and other space related staff.

The GLOBAL OUTPOST, Inc. management team brings together a mix of individuals and skills for the application of the external tank in orbit and general space development programs. The company principals have an eleven year history of concept development in external tank utihzation, and all have participated in a variety of roles in the development of space over the past two decades. The company is an Apple Macintosh Software Developer, has linked the team via Macintosh computers and expects the computer will provide increased communications for the customers.

GLOBAL OUTPOST has assembled 37 individuals of with skills in aerospace, entrepreneurial, financial, marketing and other areas to manage the OUTPOST Platform..

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Thomas C. Taylor – founder and president of GLOBAL OUTPOST, Inc.. a professional civil engineer with degrees from Colorado State and Stanford University. Mr. Taylor is also the Chairman of the Board. He has spent the last eleven years working as a consultant in the space commercialization industry focusing on the utilization of the external tank in orbit for commercial purposes. He has also helped start other successful space related ventures and has published over thirty ET related technical papers. Mr. Taylor was director of engineering for SPACEHAB in the early years. SPACEHAB is a pressurized module in the orbiter due to launch in 1993 and has raised over $100 million from the private sector.

James E. Wilson – executive vice president, founder of the Wilson and Moore Corporation, a professional, consultative services organization offering technical and managerial services to industry and government. Former staff director for the Science and Technology Subcommittee of the House of Representatives. Mr. Wilson and Mr. Taylor founded the company after meeting in 1987.

John D. Hodge – director of government relations, retired NASA, Office of Space Station, Deputy and Acting Associate Administrator for Space Station which included everything from the creation and staffing to long range operational issues for the NASA Space Station Program (1982 to 1986).

Dr. Charles W. Cook – director of engineering, has a broad background in space and national security activities with over 30 years of experience in key senior management positions in the Department of Defense planning the course of the nation’s defense space efforts. Dr. Cook has served as focal point and interface between the Department of Defense space activities and NASA, NOAA, DOT and other agencies.

William A. Good – director of marketing, joined GLOBAL OUTPOST, Inc. from McDonnell Douglas where he was manager for Space Transportation Market Analysis, broad entrepreneurial and aerospace marketing experience in Space Transportation Market Analysis at McDonnell Douglas and Martin Marietta, Space Station flight operations at Rockwell International, Consolidated Space Operations Center software development at TRW, and commercial software development at EDS.

Jerry S. Howe – OUTPOST’s general legal advisor of Steptoe and Johnson, Washington, D.C., commercial space agreement experience with NASA including space law and government space policy. Jerry was the chief negotiator for the NASA Enabling Agreement.

David Nixon – is an architect and partner of Future Systems Consultants. He has completed several NASA research contracts in manned space facilities design and is now involved in construction systems studies for lunar applications. Mr. Nixon is assisting with CAD definition and advanced ET applications studies.

Stanley H. Johansen – is the founder of SouthWestem Consulting International (SWCI), a firm that specializes in conducting Strategic Planning, Market Research, Quality Management Programs, Economic and Financial Analysis for Capital Investment Projects, and in the preparation of detailed Business Plans for small, medium and new start- up venture companies.

Wilfred J. Mellors – former head of the Washington Office of the European Space Agency (1973 to 1983). has extensive experience in international space activities.

R. Bruce Pittman – president of Operations Concepts, Inc., specializing in the rapid prototyping of aerospace technology & operations situations. Systems Engineering consultant.

Alice S. Taylor – Corporate Secretary & Treas.

Loren J.Abdulezer – financial advisor and director of software research with consulting and programming experience at a major accounting firm.

Paul Gulman – professional mechanical engineer, formerly with MMA in Denver.

T. Bland Norris – extensive NASA science and program experience.

David Braun – financial assistant with extensive business and financial experience.

Jon E. Trevathan – corporation legal.

Richard Dowling – aerospace communications and video expert, Founded Space Media.

Rex W. Ridenoure – JPL space expert, entrepreneur and former NASA researcher.

James R. Grady -general manager, Discovery Space Technology Center.

John Paul Rossie – telecommunications expert.

Arthur W. Overman – marketing and business development

Regis Fauquet – engineering and models.

Carlos Rocha – engineering assistant and human factors.

Leonard David – is a freelance writer, author, co-author and contributor to a variety of space studies and space publications with over 10 years experience in interfacing and the aerospace media and working within the U.S. public space movement.

Ron Jones – is a special effects photographer and robotics expert.

The OUTPOST start up team includes many multitalented individuals capable of moving the concept through its development. GLOBAL OUTPOST is located on the campus of the University of Maryland and part of the stated supported Technology Advancement Program (TAP), an entrepreneurial incubator.

contact: Thomas C. Taylor
Phone 505-522-2106
Fax 505-522-2495
email: ttaylor@totacc.com
3705 Canyon Ridge Arc
Las Cruces, NM 88011


The key to cost effective orbital services is the External Tank (ET). The ET is the light brown tank under the shuttle on each launch, discarded and not reused. The tank is truly a remarkable combination of economic opportunity and enabling technology. The ET is used as a strongback and propellant container in the shuttle launch and could be used a second time as a strongback in orbit because, it can reduce the cost of doing business in space and enhance other aspects of the OUTPOST Platform. The Martin Marietta Corporation at the Michoud Assembly Facility New Orleans, LA. and fabricates the ET for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

The External Tank (ET) is a light aluminum structure containing two tanks and covered with a Thermal Protection System (TPS) consisting of sprayed-on foam insulation of several types. The exterior of the ET provides a large surface (almost a third of an acre) on which to conduct business in orbit. This exterior surface is similar to raw land or real estate and can be developed. The ET is essential to the shuttle as a carrier of the propellants necessary to place the vehicle on orbit and as a strongback for the stack, but considerable energy (cost) is invested in the ET mass to bring it to near orbit. The External Tank (ET) is taken to -98+ % of full orbital velocity.

Why the External Tank is Important

The External Tank of the Space Shuttle is used as a strongback in orbit and can reduce the cost of doing business in orbit.

The transportation costs for the ET are almost all paid. In the near term the external tank offers other advantages including orbital stability and as a strongback. The length of the ET (154’) produces gravity gradient forces, which causes the long axis of the tank to constantly point toward the center of the earth. These forces greatly reduce the reaction control system propellants used on the platform and provide a stable platform for business activities and is an excellent strong back for the attachment of customer payloads. The ET is used as a propellant container and has three internal pressure volumes. These volumes are not suitable for propellant containers or manned volumes, but some customers have expressed interest in their use for other purposes.

The greatest early advantage the ET appears to be the design approach it seems to force. The approach to the second use of the external tank is the “salvage of a derelict” mentality, rather than a “clean sheet everything new” attitude in the design. This approach is helped by the company’s policy of using existing flight qualified subsystems and not developing new technology. This means the OUTPOST Platform is not a “clean sheet” design in the traditional aerospace fashion with the associated overhead, but a combination of subsystems packaged from existing flight proven subsystems such as power solar arrays and communications, capable of salvaging a discarded derelict and providing commercial services.

Another advantage of the external tank is its size. It is big. Previous commercial platforms by several organizations have not been successful in the space commercialization industry to date for several reasons. First, the ventures have had an upper limit on the quantity of services and availability of payload slots offered from a single platform, which drove the cost of services higher. The external tank has almost a third of an acre of exterior surface and the firm’s Enabling Agreement signed with NASA leads to five external tanks in orbit, which gives an almost unlimited capability to grow. Second, the previous ventures have created a platform design where the facility development cost is great enough to require government guarantees and/or government insurance to raise the money in the private sector. The external tank contributes to the low cost aspects of the venture, which permits a lower total capital requirement from the private sector without government guarantees. Third, the flexibility, size, geometry and mass of the customer’s payloads have been limited by the relatively small (compared to the ET) spacecraft infrastructure. The ET provides a big, low cost, functionally flexible commercial facility capable of adapting to new markets in 24 months.


The Martin Marietta Corporation produces the External Tank at the Michoud Assembly Facility under contract with NASA through the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

External Tank Capacity:

  • Total: 535,277 gallons
    • 730,159 kg.
    • 1,610,000 lbs.
  • Liquid Oxygen: 145,138 gallons
    • 625,850 kg.
    • 1,380,000 lbs.
    • 19,409 cu. ft.
  • Liquid Hydrogen: 330,139 gallons
    • 104,308 kg.
    • 230,000 lbs.
    • 52,273 cu. ft.
  • Tank Size:
    • Length: 153.8 feet
    • 4,688 cm
    • Diameter: 27.6 feet
    • 840 cm
  • Hydrogen Tank
    • Length: 96.7 feet
    • 2,947 cm
  • Oxygen Tank
    • Length: 54.6 feet
    • 1,664 cm
  • Intertank
    • Length: 22.5 feet
    • 686 cm
  • Tank Weight:
    • empty
    • 66,000 lbs.
    • 29,932 kg.
  • Loaded
    • 676,000 lbs.
    • 760.091 kg.
  • Propellant Flow:
    • *Liquid Oxygen: 159,480 lbs/min or 16.800 gal/min.
    • *Liquid Hydrogen: 26,640 Ibs/min or 4533 gal/min.
  • Nominal Separation:
    • Altitude: 69 Statute Miles
    • 60 Nautical Miles
    • 111 Kilometers
    • Downrange:
      • 805 Statute Miles
      • 700 Nautical Miles
      • 1297 Kilometers

      • *Note:

        Liquid Oxygen Weight = 71.1 lbs/cu. ft.

        Liquid Hydrogen Weight = 4.4 lbs/cu. ft.

        Liquid Oxygen Temp. = -297 degrees F

        Liquid Hydrogen Weight = – 423 degrees F

        GLOBAL OUTPOST. Inc.

        September 1990


        1. A commercial corporation established in response to the president’s policy on space with regard to the external tank of the Space Transportation System.

        2. A start-up team with proven experience in the aerospace industry in both the government and the private sector.

        3. A business plan that is evolutionary in nature and minimizes up-front capital.

        4. A system concept that has been studied by both government and industry with proven feasibility.

        5. A “Subsystem Kitting” approach that has minimum impact on the external tank production line.

        6. An operational approach that is compatible with the shuttle and consistent with safety requirements.

        7. A growth concept that is responsive to the emerging market and competitive international marketplace.

        8. The external tank is already taken nearly to orbit in the current launch profile and the company proposes with NASA cooperation to place it in orbit.

        9. The core platform can stimulate commercial research and entrepreneurial concepts in the emerging international space commercialization industry.

        10. The bottom line: A simple, safe, system that is technically and financially sound and consistent with the National Space Policy, managed by a team that is experienced and ready to negotiate an Launch Services Agreement that is mutually beneficial to government and the commercial company.

        Excerpted from John Hodge’s comments on the NASA Presentations, Rev. Feb 1990

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